How to Cook Down Maple Sap

by Fred Decker

It takes just a few trees to make syrup for a small family.

Jupiterimages/ Images

Items you will need

  • Cheesecloth
  • Foodsafe buckets, either plastic, aluminum or stainless steel
  • Large pot
  • Outdoor burner (optional)
  • Spatter screen
  • Hydrometer or candy thermometer
  • Sterile canning jars

Producing old-fashioned artisanal foods from scratch is an appealing prospect, but taking up beekeeping or curing your own bacon can be a major undertaking. Making your own maple syrup is a much easier project, requiring only a modest investment in time and equipment. All you need are a few sugar maples or red maples, at least 10 to 12 inches in diameter, and some taps and buckets to collect the sap. The time-consuming part of the job is cooking down that sap into syrup.

Step 1

Pour the raw sap through several layers of cheesecloth to strain out any twigs, leaf mold, insect, bark fragments or other debris that might have found its way into your buckets. It takes approximately 10 gallons of sap to make a single quart of syrup, so you'll need several buckets to hold the unstrained and strained sap.

Step 2

Place your largest pot on your stove, or better yet on an outdoor burner. You'll need to boil away about 40 quarts of steam to get one of syrup, and that's a lot of steam to pump into the air in your house. If you must boil the sap indoors, keep your range hood's fan on and -- if possible -- open the windows. Fill the pot with sap, and bring it to a low boil.

Step 3

Boil the sap continuously, keeping a spatter screen over the top of the pot to prevent insects or dust from falling in. Whenever the level of sap in your pot drops by about a third, top it up with fresh sap.

Step 4

Continue topping up the pot until you've added all your raw sap. Until this point the process requires little hands-on attention, but once the pot contains the last of your sap you must start monitoring it. As the sap approaches a syrup concentration, it will begin to foam and might boil over.

Step 5

Test the syrup with a hydrometer, if you own one or can borrow it. It's a specialized device that tells you the concentration of sugar in your syrup, with 67 percent being ideal. If you don't have a hydrometer, use a good-quality candy thermometer. Syrup at the right concentration boils at 7 degrees Fahrenheit higher than the boiling temperature of pure water, or 219 F at sea level.

Step 6

Strain the syrup again, through cheesecloth or a commercial syrup filter. Pour it still hot -- at 180 F or higher -- into sterilized canning jars, and seal them immediately for storage.


  • Keep your raw sap as cool as possible, in an unheated garage or porch area. It can be held for up to two or three days, if you're still accumulating syrup, but if it gets warm it can ferment and become sour.

    Boiling the syrup can take many hours, depending how large a pot you have. If you have access to more than one burner, stove or hot plate, use multiple pots to speed the process. Combine them into one large, heavy pot as you reach the last of your syrup.


  • Like any other syrup with a high concentration of sugar, fresh-made maple syrup can cause serious burns if you spill it on yourself. Handle the pots with care, using heatproof and moistureproof silicone gloves if possible.

Photo Credits

  • Jupiterimages/ Images

About the Author

Fred Decker is a trained chef and certified food-safety trainer. Decker wrote for the Saint John, New Brunswick Telegraph-Journal, and has been published in Canada's Hospitality and Foodservice magazine. He's held positions selling computers, insurance and mutual funds, and was educated at Memorial University of Newfoundland and the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology.