Carol Gilligan developed her theory of moral development in response to Lawrence Kohlberg’s 1969 examination of moral concepts including those related to justice, rights, equality and human welfare.
Gilligan’s 1982 book, “In A Different Voice: Psychological Theory & Women’s Development,” takes its basis in the moral development of women--Kohlberg’s earlier research did not include women in its study, but included interviews with males.
Gilligan theorized that women feel inequality and fairness as less of an issue than do men because they do not break away from a close association with the mother as early as do boys, who assert their masculinity by asserting independence.
The moral development of women is, according to Gilligan, split into three levels. The first level is the perception of survival of the self, this level is described as the individual moving from selfish to responsible.
The second level associates self-sacrifice with goodness--the individual finds a place within the given structure of society.
In the final level of moral development, the woman finds truth in the understanding of herself and a realization of the consequences of her actions.
Paul Cartmell began his career as a writer for documentaries and fictional films in the United Kingdom in the mid-1990s. Working in documentary journalism, Cartmell wrote about a wide variety of subjects including racism in professional sports. Cartmell attended the University of Lincoln and London Metropolitan University, gaining degrees in journalism and film studies.