By the beginning of her third year, a preschooler is becoming very active and agile. The rapid physical development of a 3-year-old’s brain shows marked advancement of her cognitive abilities. At the same time, her increasing body size and the improved coordination of her large and small motor skills show just how fast she is growing up.
By the time a child reaches 3 years of age, his brain has developed enough so he will become talkative and speak clearly. He can speak in short, three- to five-word sentences, with a vocabulary of over 250 words, and respond to straightforward questions, notes WebMD. A 3-year-old will begin to use his imagination to tell tales and he will become highly inquisitive, testing the limits of a parent's patience with a string of constant “why” questions, such as “Why can’t dogs talk?” His memory will become developed enough so he will remember his name, age and his favorite parts of familiar stories. He will be able to identify colors, shapes and objects, such as a ball, and be able to count. He will begin to develop an idea of abstract, but simple, concepts like time in a linear manner, such as morning, afternoon and night.
Size and Growth
While children grow at different rates, depending on such issues as gender and genes, on average 3-year-olds will weigh between 25 and 44 lbs and stand 34- to 43-inches tall, notes the National Network for Child Care, provided they are receiving the proper nutrition, taking in the recommended 1,200 to 1,400 calories each day. A 3-year-old will lose the stubby chubbiness of her hands and fingers and develop a more slender, elongated body frame and begin holding her head and shoulders more erect. By age 3 a child has received her full set of baby teeth and her face will lengthen and her jaw will begin to widen, making room for her permanent teeth. She will gain more control over her bowls and bladder and should have far fewer accidents during the night.
Gross Motor Skills
Gross, or large, motor skills are the first to develop; they control movements of locomotion and the trunk such as sitting, standing and walking. By 3 years of age a child will be able to walk upright on his own; run, although it may look more like stumbling; and climb stairs, sometimes needing to use his hands for balance to move to the next step. He will be able to jump in the air, slightly, on two feet and may begin to develop enough balance to try hopping on one foot. He will have enough upper-body strength to pull his toy wagon and push a door shut. He can do somersaults, pedal a tricycle and toss a ball -- a few feet -- with both hands.
Fine Motor Skills
Fine, or small, motor skills allow children to execute delicate movements with their arms, hands and feet. With some variations due to personal development, a 3-year-old will be able to hold a crayon or pencil more-or-less in her fingers, instead of her fist, draw or color in a picture and copy simple lines, notes the Georgia Department of Early Care and Learning. She will be able to cut paper with scissors, although not in a straight line, manipulate small objects and put together simple puzzles and stack blocks. She will be able to turn the page of a book and begin to lace -- but not tie -- her shoes.
- WebMD: 3- to 4-Year-Olds: Developmental Milestones
- National Network for Childcare: Ages & Stages -- Three-Year Olds
- Wisconsin Department of Health Services: Active Early Development
- Georgia Department of Early Care and Learning: Georgia Early Learning Standards
- Skill Builders Pediatric Occupational Therapy: Fine Motor Development 0 to 6 Years
- Comstock Images/Comstock/Getty Images