The amount of information collected by people each day makes it difficult to quickly determine the quality of information. Listeners and readers frequently don't have the ability to determine credibility by comparing information with what is commonly known about the subject. This means taking time to evaluate the message in a more formal way. The Purdue University Writing Lab defines source "credibility" as the combined elements of reliability, accuracy and trustworthiness.
Consider the Source
The source of the information provides important clues for determining the credibility of the message. Media sources with solid reputations for credible information include those hiring trained professionals to collect information and report the stories. The length of time spent providing information, number of staff and editorial policy helps readers evaluate the message. One way to determine source credibility is to evaluate the purpose of the information. Sources making formal statements supporting one position or political party typically shape the message to promote the cause, while neutral sources attempt to report information using an unbiased approach. Another quick way to review trustworthiness includes looking for formal peer review of the information by experts in the field.
The qualifications and training of the source helps determine credibility. Sources without formal training typically have less experience compared with information from trained people. The most valuable information comes from trained and experienced sources with a formal education degree in the field of the message. A professional football player, for instance, has valuable insights about the sport, but lacks credibility to make statements about the best way to manage the economy. Credible sources, for example, include science information from a government agency focused on science research. Medical information published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention typically has greater credibility than material presented on science segments for local television broadcasts.
Publisher Allyn and Bacon recommends determining the quality of information by comparing the material with the content of other sources covering the same topic. When information differs from all other sources, you need to do additional investigation to ensure the validity of the original information. Advanced searches include doing more than one validity test, such as locating the original source of research materials. Reprinting, translation from one language into another and unintentional mistakes create additional information-credibility problems. Sources occasionally intentionally manipulate information to change the original message. This eliminates all credibility for the specific information, and also reduces the validity of the source as valid in reporting on any topic.
The term "methodology" refers to the way the writer or source collected information and the process used to interpret the material. Typically, the most credible information lists the methodology in the article, but limited space for print information means the methods used to develop the information are available only on a related website or in a secondary publication. Credible original material, however, should give the reader directions to find the methodological information. Valid information is timely and credible sources note the date of the research and also the date of the reporting.
- Purdue Online Writing Lab: Using Research and Evidence
- Media Ethics: Research Attention to the Credibility of Information Sources
- St. Cloud State University Literacy Education Online: Assessing the Credibility of Online Sources
- Allyn and Bacon Teaching with Technology: Determining the Credibility of Sources
- Oregon State University Libraries: Library Tutorial -- What Is a Scholarly Article?
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